Pest Type: Soft Pests
Row: Lepidoptera – Lepidoptera
Family: Moths – Geometridae
It happens everywhere. Damages ordinary pine, less often spruce, fir and other conifers.
Butterfly with wingspan: female 35-40 mm, male 30-35 mm. The front wings of the female are ore brown with a darkened apex and two dark brown transverse bands; tendrils are filiform; fore wings of male dark brown with yellowish oblong spots in the middle; tendrils are feathery. Egg size 1.2? 0.5 mm, light. Caterpillar 30-40 mm long, glabrous, greenish, with yellow-white stripes on the back and sides of the body; two pairs of abdominal legs, the head is flat, with three wide bright stripes. Pupa 7-15 mm long, yellow-brown, shiny, with a pointed wrinkled cremaster.
Pupae hibernate in forest litter, in a small depression, without a cocoon. The butterfly years from the end of May and lasts for a month. The maximum falls in the first half of June. Fly during the day at temperatures above 11 ° C. At night they fly into the light. Butterflies do not require additional nutrition and already on the second day, they begin to lay eggs.
The female lays eggs in rows, 7-30 pieces per old needles. Fertility – 150-200 eggs. The lower development threshold is 8 ° C. Caterpillars resurrected after 10-20 days to eat the oblong grooves on the needles of last year without touching the vein. Damaged needles are covered with drops of hardening resin and dry. Caterpillars of recent centuries eat whole needles, leaving small stumps. In late August and September, the moth damages the needles of this year.
During long-term development, one caterpillar eats an average of 100 needles or 3.5 g of needles. Massive damage leads to weakening and drying of the trees.
During the development of the female caterpillar, six centuries pass, the male caterpillar – five. In September – October, the caterpillars leave fodder trees and pass into the forest litter, where they pupate in 2-3 days and remain there until spring. One generation develops per year.
Accompanying species are pine floral moths. It is found everywhere. Damages a pine, less often spruce; smoky coniferous moth – Peribatodes Secundaria Esp. It is found everywhere. Damages young conifers in nurseries.
More than 100 species of parasitic Hymenoptera and Diptera are known, which play an important role in limiting the number of moths. Eggs infect various bronchograms; caterpillars and pupae – braconids; ichneumonids, etc. Forest ants, ground beetles, birds (rooks, jackdaws, crows, cuckoos, woodpeckers, tits, blackbirds, finches), shrews, moles, hedgehogs feed on caterpillars and pupae. During the years of mass breeding, the death of older caterpillars is noted.
Protective measures. Attraction to plantations and protection of insectivorous birds. Resettlement of anthills. With a population exceeding two pupae per 1 m2 of the crown projection, treatment with biological products or insecticides during the revival of caterpillars.