Type of pest: Tobacco pest, indoor vegetable pest, fruit crop pest
Row: Equine – Homoptera
Family: aphids – Aphididae
Distributed everywhere. The primary owner is a peach and some of its hybrids with almonds. It damages fruit trees, tobacco, tomatoes, cucumbers, potatoes, and cotton.
Founders and wingless parthenogenetic females – up to 2.5 mm in size, clear green, sometimes pink, mustache tubercles high, form a frontal groove, cylindrical tubules, slightly widened at the base and barely swollen to the end, finger-like tail. Amphigone female – 2 mm in size, from clear brown to cherry in color, hind legs thickened. Male – up to 1.9 mm, head, chest, antennae black, abdomen clear green, with black transverse stripes that merge into a continuous spot on the III-IV segments of the body. The egg is green, it darkens over time and before leaving the larva becomes black. Winters in the egg stage at the base of the peach buds.
The founders are reborn in March, however, depending on the temperature, they can be reborn in February or April. They feed first on the buds, later on blossoming leaves and flowers. The duration of their development is 17-28 days. In April, for 10-20 days, they revive 20-60 larvae. On a peach, 2-3 generations of wingless females develop. From the second generation, winged ones appear, in the next generations their number increases.
Aphids fly on weeds, and then on cultivated herbaceous plants. Up to 400 secondary host plants are known. Males develop on secondary and migrate to females; after mating, they lay 5-10 wintering eggs. In the south, as well as in greenhouses, greenhouses and indoor plants, aphids breed unevenly throughout the year.
The optimum temperature for the development of aphids is 24 ° C. The maximum number of aphids reaches in July, then its number quickly decreases and again increases only in September-October.
Protective measures. Destruction of weeds around greenhouses and greenhouses. The use of insecticides. Measures to protect fruit trees from aphids. Cutting of root shoots and fatty shoots, especially intensively populated by aphids. With a population of more than 10-20 eggs per 10 cm of shoots, it is necessary for the pest breeding centers in early spring, before buds open, at a temperature not lower than +4 ° С, spraying – washing of suicidal trees. If the aphid population density exceeds 5 colonies per 100 sheets, insecticide treatment is required. The regulated ratio of aphids and aphidophagous has one aphidophagous per 30 pest larvae. With this ratio, the use of affidavits is impractical.